Li Shujun, PhD., Professor, Department of Hydrography and Cartography, Dalian Naval Academy. Teaching and researching on the area of the nautical cartography and Geographic information system. There are more than 100 papers and 20 books have been published.
RELATION BETWEEN THE PRODUCTIONS OF HYDROGRAPHIC SURVEYING AND CHARTING AND MARINE LAWS
LI Shujun1, JING Lina2, ZHENG Yidong 1, LIU Ying1, LI Gaixiao1
1. Department of Hydrography and Cartography, Dalian Naval Academy, 116018
2. Tianjin Foreign Language Studies University, 300204
E-mail: lishijunhao @163.com
Abstract: Marine laws need supporting by hydrographic surveying and charting, and hydrographic surveying and charting can give fundamental guarantee to marine laws enforcing strongly. Meanwhile, they are restricted by marine laws in their activities. Marine laws need data and productions from hydrographic surveying and charting accurately, in time and multiformly. To meet these requirements, hydrographic surveying and charting departments must strengthen consciousness of the laws, train the talent knowing marine laws, improve the guaranteeing automatization, etc, so that to improve the compositive guarantee ability and whole level, and to serve sea exploiting and exploring well.
Keywords: Hydrographic surveying and charting, International marine laws, Marine delimitation, Surveying and mapping supporting
With the development of the contemporary technology, the continuous discovery of ocean resource and the growing depth of people’s cognition with the ocean, all the countries in the world think much of the study and exploitation of the ocean. From the last fifty years of 20’s century, the step of the ocean’s development has been expediting quickly and the ocean economics has become an important brace of the world’s economics. The ocean that occupies the 71 percent of the earth surface has become the important carrier and position for all countries to exchange their advantage and show their integration national power. In order to standardize the ocean’s exploitation market and to safeguard the benefits of the countries that are close to the ocean, U.N. wholly drew and issued the marine laws. Hydrographic surveying, which is the very important basic work and prophase guarantee work, has consanguineous relations with the marine laws. On one hand the hydrographic surveying supports the implement of the marine laws, on the other hand the marine laws restrict hydrographic surveying. Therefore, the study of their relations has play an important part in exerting the hydrographic surveying’s effect in a strong ocean country.
2 The marine laws needs the impelling support of the hydrographic surveying engineering
2.1 The content of the marine laws that is related to the hydrographic surveying
The marine laws is a branch of nations law and it conforms the law status of the ocean area and standardize every country’ action in the oceanic activity. Lots of the rules of marine laws are coming from the ancient custom laws, they are formed in the long ranged oceanic practice of the nations. After the world war, especially from the 1960s, the developing countries have paid more and more attention in maintaining their own oceanic benefits, so U.N. specially had many marine laws conferences successively to edit the related content cosmically. The common divisor of U.N. marine laws is regarded to the most general, the most integrated and the most authoritative corpus juries of the marine laws. In 1996, our country ratified this common divisor and became one of the countries that agree on it. At present, the subscribed oceanic treaty also included: the treaty for marginal sea and adjoin area, the treaty for the high seas, the treaty for halieutics and conserving biology resource of marginal sea, the treaty for continental shelf and so on, all of these treaties compose the system of the modern international marine laws.
The modern international marine laws involves lots of contents, it is made up of all kinds of laws, for example, the marginal sea and the adjoin area, the channel for international shipping, the county that are made up by archipelagoes, exclusive economic zones, continental shelf, the high seas, islands and islets system, the closed sea or the half closed sea, the rights for the inland countries to get across the ocean and to pass through the territory of a country, the protection of international sea bottom and the ocean environment, the study of ocean science, the development and alienation of the ocean technology, the settlement of the issue and so on. All of these contents have close relations with the hydrographic surveying engineering, for example, all sorts of marine delimitation, the settlement of all types of issues, the study of the ocean task, all of these work can not depart from the fruits of the hydrographic surveying, it can be said that, without the support of the hydrographic surveying engineering, there is no way to execute the marine laws. So the support that the hydrographic surveying engineering provided for the marine laws is basic and prophase.
2.2 The marine laws’ needs for the hydrographic surveying engineering
Because the fruits of the hydrographic surveying support the marine laws, the marine laws’ have special needs for the hydrographic surveying engineering. It can be concluded into three points:
2.2.1 Data veracity
Data veracity means the ocean geographic information provided must be exact. This geographic information mainly include: the base map of the sea, the map of the continental shelf, the map of the terrain of the bottom, the common chart and the special chart of different times and different scales and the map for marine delimitations in history. With the regards of new datum, the elements, just as the bank, the island, physiognomy geologic, the coast engine, the area of the land ecology resource distributing of the ecology community, not only should have exact geometry position and shape but also should use the rules of the cartography generalization correctly, for different areas and different zones, different threshold should be used to imply the curves, all of these operations should obey the rules that it can benefits us and can be accepted by the opposing part.
2.2.2 Support in time
The marine delimitation, the issue settlement, especially some paroxysmal accidents, usually needs the fast support of the hydrographic surveying engineering, there are two needs for this support: in time and real condition. On the condition of modern high tech, the hydrographic surveying engineering should possess the following efficient support system: the ability of quickly collecting operating and outputting the ocean geographic information and the special ocean information needed by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs and the marine affairs law with the help of the hydrographic surveying’s product; the ability of providing the hydrographic surveying’s product needed by the Foreign Affairs department and the law department; the ability of quickly providing the joints online and interlinkages and transferring the hydrographic surveying information in the real time; the ability of providing at any moment the hydrographic surveying information for the department of all levels to execute the marine law.
2.2.3 Production diversity
Lots of work, just as the marine delimitation, the issue settlement, the dealing with all marine accidents and so on, could not be independence of the hydrographic surveying’s product, different consumers and different applications usually need that the hydrographic surveying department could provide all forms of product guarantee, not only the figure and image on the paper but also the figure and image in digital and the multimedia datum should be offered; not only planar but also three-dimensional and multidimensional figure and image could be supplied to realize the multidimensional service; not only static but also dynamic hydrographic surveying’s product could be supplied; not only the common products but also the products that have strong analyzing function to aid the marine delimitation could be supplied. Moreover, there should be many products of different scales and different ranges.
3 The important means for the hydrographic surveying to guarantee the marine laws
3.1 Strengthen the ocean law consciousness
In the recent several decades, the international issues about continental shelf, channel, marine delimitation, ambit of sea bottom become more and more. The marine delimitation between inshore countries becomes more and more obvious. The hydrographic surveying provides geography information for the marine laws and it should be the pacemaker of carrying out the marine law. The first, expanding the study of the marine law and the hydrographic law, make every hydrographic worker to give up the idea that the marine law is only related to the law department, to master the law knowledge related to the marine laws, to realize the relations between the hydrographic surveying and the marine laws, to confirm their responsibility and to improve their consciousness of following out the marine laws; the second, expanding the study of the rules and the standards in the field of the hydrographic surveying, make every hydrographic worker to improve their operation making and to enhance the ability of executing the marine laws and the level of support.
3.2 Cultivate the international hydrographic surveying talents that are familiar with the law
With the increasing of the number of the international hydrographic organizations and the aggrandizement of their cooperation scope with each other, the depth and the extent of the collaboration between the members become more and more strong. In the process of collaboration, a large number of international standard files came into being, for instance, the standard for data pattern and transmission, hydrographic standard, international chart glossary and so on. The degree of technology cooperation and the implement of the standard depend on the hydrographic surveying talents’ international level and their personalities. Accordingly, in the late 50 years of the 20’s century, the education of hydrographic has turned to be internationalization. At present, the training courses for both the international hydrographic technicians and the international chart-making technicians include the marine laws, and it belongs to a required course. The course is made up of the legal responsibility of the hydrographic workers for their products, copyright and compact, the development history of the marine laws and its influence on the hydrographic workers, baseline, inner water, marginal sea, adjacent zones, exclusive economic zones, continental shelf, the high seas, the marine delimitation of the inshore countries and so on. The education is the base and the people should be put on the first place. Only the increasing number of the international hydrographic surveying talents that are familiar with the law can accelerate the development of cause of the hydrographic surveying and service for the ocean economics.
3.3 Improve the automatization degree of the hydrographic surveying’s support
With the development of the information technology and the 3S (GPS?GIS?RS), the hydrographic surveying’s support for the marine law is transforming from handwork to automation. Especially, the geographic information systems that are used to execute the marine delimitation has been studied and explored, these system could be used to aid the marine delimitation. These difficulties and keys to GIS’s spatial analysis function are building and analyzing of the buffer on the global elliptical surface to create the limits for marginal sea, adjacent zones, exclusive economic zones and so on. At present, departments of the hydrographic surveying charting in some developed countries go through a mass of research in this field and get definite progeny, they are mature in making software on marine delimitation. But they also have problems such as inefficient arithmetic and faulty function. From now on, we should do our best to study, dig potential, put into more manpower and financial on automatic guarantee level of the hydrographic surveying charting, advance the automatic level of the marine delimitation as soon as possible.
3.4 Improve the precision of the hydrographic surveying charting
The implementation of the marine laws needs the support of the hydrographic surveying charting, so, in order to fulfill the requirement of the exploration of the ocean in the most degree, we must improve the precision of the hydrographic surveying charting. In exploring and mapping, we must obey the international standards to operate and product. The international chart published should consult to the data format and transmission standard of the international chart production, then preserve the real condition of the hydrographic surveying charting information, shorten the guarantee cycle of every production, make sure to update regularly and satisfy all the precise demand in the law activities on the sea. At the same time, we should pay attention to fitting the special demands of the marine laws, handle mapping rules and items of marine laws flexibly and seek for technology and method of marine delimitation which is benefit for the inshore country and is accepted by the neighborhood to carry out the marine laws smoothly. There won’t be any mistake on the use of the global ellipsoid, conversion of the coordinate, ensuring of the measurement basic surface, the selection of the projection, the creation of the mathematic models and the spatial analysis of the data and the forecasting of the change.
3.5 Extending the guarantee scope of the hydrographic surveying charting
Hydrographic surveying charting has many aspects of guarantee to the marine laws. In the aspect of guarantee content and s to service for, the guarantee of the delimitation of the sea area will be put on the first place. Because the marine delimitation has the relationship with national dominion, dominion right, nationality behalf, the ocean’s economic development of the state. The marine delimitation is the effective measure to settle the conflict of the international sea area; it is also the precondition and the guarantee of safeguarding the sea’s rights and interests; it is also the predetermination and necessary condition for inshore country to implement the ocean’s strategy and develop the ocean’s economic. So it is the primary guarantee of the hydrographic surveying charting to the marine laws that the service for the marine delimitation. The hydrographic surveying charting work in the marine delimitation is one of the content of boundary mapping .It belongs to the subject of the delimitation of the sea. It includes marginal measure of sea baseline and marginal mapping for the adjoin zone, exclusive economic zone, continental shelf outside boundary and so on. At present this job takes a lot attention of each inshore country’s. It should support ocean geographic information for conflict, fish and maintaining the marine organisms in the high sea, besides the guarantee of delimitation. From now on for the hydrographic surveying charting to service should be more comprehensive and more systemic. In the national defense, it will provide the marine battlefield environmental information about the marginal sea and the high sea for the military department; in the national economy, it is not only to perfect the information guarantee system on shipping and fishing, but also to enlarge the information guarantee strength on the marine project construction and marine resource exploration; in scientific research, it stresses on exploration and edit special element data in order to fulfill the research of marine science and global science ; in marine diplomacy, it continues to perfect the electronic edition of the marine delimitation system, it provides powerful support on marine delimitation for the countries which are close to the sea and the peripheral countries. In addition, in the guarantee form of the product, it strives for diversification. It depend on paper, figure, electronics and many medias, the form of the guarantee is combined by character, graphics, picture and voice. They are all used to meet the special requirement of different client, different arrangement.